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Củ bỏ ra Tunnels is an underground defensive system in Củ đưa ra District, about 70 km khổng lồ the north-west of Hochiminh city. This system was dug by the People"s Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam during Indochina War (with the French) & Vietnam War (with the United States). 
The Tunnels system includes clinics, many rooms, kitchens, storages, offices và the underground subway system. The Tunnels system is measured 200 km in length, & it has the systems that ventilated the air into the positions which are located in the bush. Củ đưa ra Tunnels was built on the land that was known as the “land of steel” where the over point of sài gòn Trail was. During the đầu năm (Vietnam’s Lunar New Year) Offensive Movement in 1968, the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam used this tunnel system lớn attack Saigon. 
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Củ chi Tunnels was the common name for many different tunnel systems which were formed during the French War from 1946 to lớn 1948. During this time frame, the people’s army from Tân Phú Trung Commune and Phước Vĩnh An Commune dug short underground trails with simple structure for the purposes of taking cover, storing important documents and weapons. It has been suggested that people in this particular area began lớn dig their tunnels spontaneously in 1948. 
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People in this area dug trenches và tunnels seperately to lớn avoid being rounded up or raid by the French Military & to provide hide out places for the Việt Minh (League for the Independence of Vietnam). Each village built their own individual tunnel at first. Then, the tunnel systems between villages were connected to form a continuous & complex system that was suitable for the demand of moving from one village’s tunnel system to lớn another. Later on, this system was expanded khổng lồ many locations, especially the six communes in the North of Củ Chi. Its structure includes trenches & tunnels which were renovated to become the great place for Vietnamese soldiers lớn hide, fight, communicate and give assistance for each other. During the period from 1961 lớn 1965, the communes in North of Củ bỏ ra completed the main tunnel which they called the “backbone” of the Tunnels system. Then, the tunnel branches that linked with the main tunnel were developed by unions, vietnamaviation.vnanizations và agencies to khung continuous tunnels’ linkages between villages, communes và regions. The guerilla army of Củ đưa ra also dug an interlace system of communication trenches above the ground that connected to the Tunnels. The tunnels used for battles were also devided into layers và trails. Additionally, there were many combat emplacements, minefileds, nail holes, blind ditches… that formed uninterrupted clusters above the tunnels lớn create a solid battlefield for guerilla war strategy (also called communal battleground). Approximately, 200 km of the Tunnels have been dug by 1965. Dimentionally, the total length of the Tunnels system is above 200km, with three different layers. The đứng top layer is 3m underground. The middle layer is 6m underground. The bottom layer is 12m underground. Except for being a hiding place, the Tunnels were also used for other military purposes such as living space, ambulance, meetings, arsenal...

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The Tunnels was dug in area that had the phối of laterite và clay, therefore, it was durable và less spone khổng lồ landslide. The Tunnels system is deep underground. This depth will help it to lớn withstand the destructive power nguồn of the biggest types United States Military’s bombs at the time. The air was taken into the Tunnels through the ventilated holes. Various areas of the Tunnels can be isolated when needed.
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The Tunnels’ depth is from 3 lớn 8 m and its height is just enough for one person to stoop và walk. The first trench is at the edge of the forest with underground wells that provide water for daily activities & drinking of the entire Tunnels. The Tunnels system has three layers. There are various tunnel branches which are short or long in kích thước and are connected altogether with the “backbone” tunnel. One of these branches run all the way lớn Saigon River. The first layer is three meters underground that is able lớn withstand artillery bullets & the weight of tanks và steel armored vehicles.
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The second floor is five meters underground và it can withstand small kích thước bombs. The last floor is 8-10 meters underground. The trails lớn go up and down the Tunnels were positioned by the hatch covers. The covers were discreetly camouflaged above which resembled the termite mounds. There were also ventilation holes along the Tunnels. Contacting with the Tunnels were the large trenches for relaxing, storages of weapons & food, wells, Hoàng cầm kitchen (military kitchen style used for Củ đưa ra Tunnels), command base, surgery base,…. There were also large trenches with the roofs that were well ventilated và skilfully camouflaged for the purposes of watching movies and art performances.

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People lived in the Tunnels with low light, heat và humidity, & poor hygiene conditions, therefore, most of them were infected by parasites, silver skin và bone diseases. Lack of food and basic necessities could also be the biggest problems for the Tunnels’ residences as well.
The US Army và the Republic of Vietnam’s Army constantly attacked the Tunnels system by all means such as: bombing, pumping water into the Tunnels, using Asphyxiating gas… But, the designing style helped the Tunnels system took less damages, for, each part of this system could be isolated when necesary. The US Military adopted several measures to detect the entrances (camouflaged) and discover air vents (usually located between the bushes). The most effective method was using professional dogs. Innitially, there were some entrances and ventilation holes that were discovered by professional dogs because they can sniff human smell. However, the people stayed in the Tunnels put American soaps at the entrances và ventilation holes to make it impossible for professional dogs to sniff and detect.
There are still 120km of Củ chi Tunnels that have been protected until today which make the Tunnels become an attractive destination for tourists who visit Hochiminh city. Especially, visitors such as veterans often choose this destination when they visit Hochiminh city. Visitors will be able to have real experience about how the soldiers lived in the Tunnels back in those days (there will be sightseeing, tasting the food & drink that the residence of the Tunnels used to survive previously).
Bến Dược Tunnels (belonged to Phú Hiệp Village, Phú Mỹ Hưng Commune – Củ bỏ ra District) was ranked by the Ministry of Culture (today is Ministry of Culture, thể thao and Tourism) as a Vietnam national historical relic (according to lớn Decision number 54/VHQĐ on 29th, April, 1979 from the Minister of the Ministry of Culture). Bến Đình Tunnels system (belonged to Nhuận Đức Commune – military base of Củ chi District buổi tiệc ngọt Committee during the war resistance time) was also ranked as a national historical relic (according to Decision number 101/2004/QĐ-BVHTT on 15th, December, 2004 from the Minister of the Ministry of Culture – Information). 
Currently, the management of Củ đưa ra Tunnels historical relic (belonged khổng lồ Hochiminh City’s Military Headquarters) directly manage Bến Dược & Bến Đinh Tunnels relics. The relics consist of the Tunnels system (Bến Dược, Bến Đình), Bến Dược Temple, administration area, service area, area that demonstrates the reappearance of the liberated regions and the belts that used for destroying the US military, area for eco-tourism – entertainment along Saigon riverside.
Bến Dược is the name of Phú Mỹ, Phú Thuận region from 1929 which is now belonged to Phú Mỹ Hưng Commune. Previously, this place is the point khổng lồ cross Saigon River for moving khổng lồ other Vietnamese Southeast Provinces. There was an anecdote said that the original name of this place was Bến thừa but this name was then changed according khổng lồ South Vietnamese pronounciation as Bến Dược. 

Chuyên mục: Du lịch